There is a growing trend for leaders to break the old autocratic model of leadership to newer models using the concepts of shared and participatory leadership. With the every increasing complexity of health care delivery and the new skilled work force, leaders will have to communicate in an atmosphere where a reaching organization objective is a shared responsibility. According to Bennis, Spreitzer and Cummings (2001) in the future the landscape of health care organization will become more decentralized, which will promote agility, proactivity, and autonomy. Future leaders may move away from singular roles to shared leadership networks that may themselves alter the foundations of the organization. The demands for shared leadership or leaders shifting roles on teams will continue to increase. Health care organization will foster the development and empowerment of people, building teamwork and shared leadership on all levels. The leaders of the future will be guides, asking for input and sharing information. Telling people what to do and how to do it will become a thing of the past (Bennis, Spreitzer and Cummings, 2001). In the 21st century the dynamics of health care will offer leaders who have the ability to motivate and empower others a platform to maximize an organization human resources. Leadership will have to be committed to encourage a two way communication in which the vision meets both the organizations objectives and the employee's needs. This assignment will develop a leadership model for the 21st century that addresses the role of commitment model of shared and participatory leadership in health care organizations.
Commitment model of leadership
Fullam, Lando, Johansen, Reyes, and Szaloczy (1998) suggest effective leadership style is an integral part of creating an environment that nurtures the development of an empowered group. Leader effectiveness is simply the extent to which the leader's group is successful in achieving organizational goals (Fullam et al., 1998). In the 21st century health care organizations will need leaders that are committed to developing employees in a team environment. In an environment where leadership is transferable according to objective commitment leadership has a shared purpose. Kerfoot and Wantz (2003) suggested in inspired organizations where people are committed and excited about their work, compliance to standards and the continual search for excellence happens automatically. In these organizations, compliance continues when the leader is not present. This type of leadership requires the team leader to use all available means to create three conditions among individuals: (a) shared purpose, (b) self-direction, and (c) quality work. Leaders who create commitment among their employees believe in creating a shared vision that generates a sense of shared destiny for everyone (Kerfoot & Wantz, 2003).
Involving others in leadership is a unique process which is deeply rooted in individuals believing they are a part of the process of meeting organizational objective and purpose. Atchison and Bujak (2001) suggest involving others in the process is important because people tend to support that which they help to create. People resent being changed, but they will change if they understand and desire the change and control the process. Sharing information promotes a sense of participation and allows people to feel acknowledged and respected (Atchison & Bujak, 2001 p. 141).
Toseland, Palmer-Ganeles, and Chapman (1986) suggest when individual leaders cooperate and share their expertise and skills, a more comprehensive decision making process can be achieved rather than when leaders work independently. For example, in a geriatric team, a psychiatric nurse may lead a group focused on heath concerns, a social worker may lead a therapy group, or a mental-health therapy aide may lead a structured reality-orientation group (Toseland et al., 1986). Shared commitment form the leadership in the future will help to develop, coordinate, and integrate the complex and ever changing health care setting for the 21st century.
Respect for authority and work ethic
Haase-Herrick (2005) suggested shared leadership gives the opportunity to enhance or build trust among individuals. Leadership is mobilized around refining the roles of individuals creating positive health practice environments that support the work of the group (Haase-Herrick, 2005). Leadership ability to lead a team in ways that build morale and reinforce work ethics empowers others to perform to their potential in a group. Leadership is the ability to lead individuals towards achieving a common goal. Leadership builds teams and gains the members shared commitment to the team process by creating shared emotion within the group (Pescosolido, 2002).
Collaboration among leaders in health care
There are new models that are emerging which add a new perspective on how to produce effective collaboration within leadership. Wieland et al., (1996) discussed transdisciplinary teams in health care settings, where members have developed sufficient trust and mutual confidence to engage in teaching and learning across all levels of leadership. The collaborating is shared but the ultimate responsibility for effectiveness is provided in their place by other team members. The shared responsibility for example might be a situation where clinicians on a team each serve in a leadership role regardless of their particular disciplinary expertise (Wieland et al., 1996). The shared commitment model of leadership allows for the independence and equality of the contributing professions while pressuring team members to achieve consensus about group goals and priorities. It is important to emphasize the importance of collaboration in a complex and changing health care environment. The focus on the primary purpose for partnership of leaders will ultimately rest on the shared belief in meeting organizational goals though a collaborative effort. Atchison and Bujak (2001) suggest it is important to reemphasize the importance of keeping everyone informed on the primary purpose of achieving success though a collaborative effort. Clarifying expectations and specifically illustrating how proposed changes are likely to affect the participants is important in achieving commitment leadership (Atchison & Bujak, 2001)
Leadership competency on all levels
The ability to lead in the 21st century requires leaders to be competent in motivating and empowering others to perform to their maximum potential. According to Elsevier (2004) leadership is the ability to lead a team or number of individuals in ways which build morale, generate ownership and harness energies and talents towards achieving a common goal. The leadership competency is all about motivating and empowering others while accomplishing organizational objectives. Leadership is the vehicle in which the vision is clarified though the encouragement of two-way communication on all levels of the organization (Elsevier, 2004).
Leaders in the 21st century will have to be competent in identifying change as they occur and encourage others to adjust to those changes for the mutual benefit of achieving objectives. Elsevier (2004) suggest leaders will have to be comfortable with change because which change comes new opportunities for collaboration among followers and peers (Elsevier, 2004). Improving the results of change initiatives while making sure those changes are fully understood will be a priority for leaders who choice to lead by commitment leadership.
Leadership as a changing agent
Longest, Rakich and Darr (2000) suggest organizational change in health care organization does not occur absent certain conditions. Key are the people who are catalysts for change and who can manage the organizational change process. Such people are called change agents. Anyone can be a change agent, although this role usually is played by leadership. Change agents must recognize that any organizational change involves changing individuals. Individuals will not change with out motivation introduces by the changing agent. The changing agent must create a body of shared values and attitudes, a new consensus in which key individuals with in an organization reinforce one another in selling the new way and in defending it against opposition (Longest, Rakich and Darr, 2000). As health care organizations change in the 21st century successful leaders must have the skills that are necessary to make change possible with in teams of individuals. Longest, Rakich and Darr (2000) suggest one of the important category of change is team building or team development, which "remove barriers to group effectiveness, develop self sufficiency in managing group process, and facilitate the change process (Longest, Rakich and Darr, 2000). A leader who leads by commitment must seek to minimize the resistances to change by building a consensus of objectives with in the organizations culture.
Leadership in the complex health care environment in the 21st century will need individuals to be committed to the promotion of team effectiveness. Sarner (2006) suggest leadership is a "power- and value-laden relationship between leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes and goals." In plainer language, leadership is the dynamic that galvanizes individuals into groups to make things different or to make things better -- for themselves, for their enterprise, for the world around them. The essential components of leadership have remained more or less constant: intelligence, insight, instinct, vision, communication, discipline, courage, constancy (Sarner, 2006). In the 21st century leaders must know how to gather, sort, and structure information, and then connect it in new ways to create clear objectives that satisfy both the organization and individuals needs. The important skill that can be learning during this process of leadership is the ability to listen to colleagues and collaborators for the sole purpose of foster a shared consensus. In order to communicate a vision in the future a commitment leader must work with others and sometimes defer some part of the leadership process to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.
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